Sandy in a tree!

Sandy gets up close to view trees!



Sandy loves the diversity of trees that are native to Indiana! Whenever she gets a chance, she puts on her safety equipment and goes out with her fellow Arbor Rangers ™ to view and climb trees.

Trees come in all shapes and sizes and Indiana, for example, has over 100 native species!

Did you know that some of these Indiana tree species are in common with nearby states?

For instance, the Indiana State Tree, the Tulip Tree (also known as Yellow Poplar; scientific name, Liriodendron tulipifera), is also the State Tree of Kentucky and Tennessee! It is native from Connecticut and southern New York, westward to southern Ontario and northern Ohio, and south to Louisiana and northern Florida.




The most common types of trees in Indiana range from:

  • CONIFER (a.k.a. EVERGREEN or Softwood) trees bear cones with embedded seeds and have needle-like or scale-like leaves that remain “ever” green throughout the year. Because these plants do not produce flowers, they are among the group of plants known as “Gymnosperms“.
Eastern White Pines

Eastern White Pines (Pinus strobus) adorn a front yard in this neighborhood.

  • DECIDUOUS HARDWOOD (a.k.a. Broadleafed) trees which are trees with broader, flattened, “fan-like” leaves (simple or compound of various shapes and sizes). These are seed-producing plants, like conifers, but they differ because they bear flowers (some more distinctly than others) and thereby are among a larger diverse group of plants called “Angiosperms“.  Most species’ leaves will change color before dropping off in the fall season. This is true in other cooler climate states, but rarer in warmer or tropical climate states.
Maples in the neighborhood.

Sugar Maples (Acer saccharum) brighten up a neighborhood in fall!

  • DECIDUOUS EVERGREEN trees which look like typical conifers, but surprisingly lose their foliage in the fall just like deciduous hardwood trees! These are also among the group of plants known as “Gymnosperms“.
Baldcypress by the canal

Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) by the canal have lost their summer foliage.


Do Your TREE-Search!

Sandy has helped put together the following list of trees that are native to Indiana. Included are non-native, INVASIVE SPECIES.* This is a searchable & sortable list of conifers and hardwood trees featuring their Scientific Names as well as Common Names by which they are generally known and includes links to more tree information** by clicking on their Scientific and Common Names.

DEFINITIONS The list also reflects some quick tree facts, such as:

  • Type: One of the three tree types: Conifer, Deciduous Hardwood, or Deciduous Evergreen.
  • Leaf: The general type of leaf form.
    • Simple – a single leaf blade joined by its stalk (or petiole) to a woody stem.
    • Compound – a leaf that is itself composed of more than one leaflet and these leaflets are attached to its single leaf stalk.
    • Needle-like – slender, sharp-pointed leaf.
    • Scale-like – leaves with short overlapping segments.
  • Branching: Briefly describes the general, characteristic, growth structure of the plant’s stems/branches.
    • Alternate – branching that is staggered or not directly across from one another.
    • Opposite – branches that are directly across from each other.
  • Height: The approximate average maximum height the tree species may obtain at maturity.
  • Spread: The approximate average maximum width the tree species may obtain at maturity.
  • Fall Color: The general color of the foliage during the fall/winter season; leaves detach and drop from deciduous tree types. Find out Why Leaves Change Color.
  • Hardiness Zones: Range of USDA Plant Hardiness Zones each plant has been reported to grow and usually thrive in. To learn more about hardiness zones, see our USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map – INDIANA page.

HINT: Viewing the list on a small screen mobile device in portrait position may not display all columns. Try viewing this page with your device in landscape orientation to broaden your view of all featured columns of the tree list.

Explore the Native Trees of Indiana

Scientific Name(s)Common Name(s)Type; Leaf; BranchingHeightSpreadFall ColorHardiness ZonesPEST ALERT!
Juniperus virginianaRedcedar, Eastern; Red Cedar, EasternConifer, Scale-like, Alternate50'20' Green2-9EGM (seldom attacked by EGM)
Pinus banksianaPine, Jack; Jack-pineConifer, Needle-like, Alternate40'18' Green3-7EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM, SLF)
Pinus strobusPine, Eastern White; Pine, WhiteConifer, Needle-like, Alternate100'50' Green5-7EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM, SLF)
Pinus virginianaPine, Virginia; Virginia-pine; Scrub-pineConifer, Needle-like, Alternate50'20' Green4-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM, SLF)
Thuja occidentalisArborvitae, Eastern; White Cedar, Northern; White Cedar; Tree of LifeConifer, Scale-like, Alternate; Endangered50'15' Green2-8EGM (seldom attacked by EGM)
Tsuga canadensisHemlock, Eastern; Hemlock, CanadianConifer, Needle-like, Alternate90'40' Green4-7EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Larix laricinaLarch, American; Larch, Eastern; TamarackEvergreen, Deciduous, Needle-like, Alternate75'30' Yellow2-8EGM
Taxodium distichumBaldcypress; Bald CypressEvergreen, Deciduous, Needle-like, Alternate; Threatened120'45' Red, Copper5-9
Acer negundoBoxelder; Maple, Ash-leavedHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite60'40' Red-orange3-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by ALB)
Acer nigrumMaple, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite80'60' Yellow4-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM, ALB)
Acer platanoidesMaple, Norway, incl. cultivar: Maple, Crimson King INVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite80'40' Yellow4-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM, ALB)
Acer rubrumMaple, RedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite90'50' Red-orange4-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM, ALB)
Acer saccharinumMaple, Silver; Silver-mapleHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite80'60' Yellow4-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM, ALB)
Acer saccharumMaple, Sugar; Sugar-mapleHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite80'60' Yellow-orange4-8EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM, ALB)
Aesculus flava (A. octandra)Buckeye, Yellow; Buckeye, SweetHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite90'50' Yellow, Brown3-8EGM, ALB (especially favored by ALB)
Aesculus glabraBuckeye, OhioHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite50'35' Red-brown3-7EGM, ALB (especially favored by ALB)
Amelanchier arboreaServiceberrry, Downy; Serviceberry, CommonHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'25'Yellow-red4-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Amelanchier laevisServiceberry, Allegheny: Shadbush, Allegheny; Serviceberry, SmoothHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'10'Yellow-red4-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Asimina trilobaPawpawHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'30' Yellow5-8EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Betula alleghaniensisBirch, YellowHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'60' Yellow3-9EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Betula nigraBirch, River; Birch, RedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'60' Yellow3-9EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Betula papyriferaBirch, Paper; Birch, WhiteHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'60' Yellow3-9EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Betula populifoliaBirch, Gray; Birch, GreyHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Presumed Extirpated30'20' Yellow4-6EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carpinus carolinianaHornbeam, American; Beech, Blue; Musclewood; Beech, WaterHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'25'Yellow-red3-9EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Carya cordiformisHickory, Bitternut; Bitternut-hickoryHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate80'50' Yellow3-7
Carya glabraHickory, Pignut; Pignut-hickoryHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate60'40' Yellow5-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya illinoinensisPecanHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate100'75' Yellow6-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya laciniosaHickory, Shellbark; Shellbark-hickoryHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate120'60' Yellow5-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya ovalisHickory, Red; Red-hickory; Hickory, Sweet Pignut; Sweet Pignut-hickoryHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate80'80' Yellow, Brown4-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya ovataHickory, Shagbark; Shagbark-hickoryHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate 80'40' Yellow4-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya pallidaHickory, Sand; Hickory, PaleHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate; Threatened40'43' Yellow, Pale5-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya texanaHickory, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate; Endangered50'43' Yellow, Brown5-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Carya tomentosaHickory, MockernutHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate60'30' Yellow, Brown6-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Castenea dentataChestnut, AmericanHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Endangered75'75' Yellow, Brown5-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Catalpa speciosaCatalpa, Northern; CatalpaHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Whorled60'40' Yellow-green4-9EGM (seldom attacked by EGM)
Celtis laevigataSugarberry; Hackberry, SouthernHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'80' Yellow6-9
Celtis occidentalisHackberry, Common; Hackberry, NorthernHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate90'60' Yellow2-9EGM, ALB (especially favored by EGM)
Cercis canadensisRedbud; Redbud, EasternHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'35' Yellow4-9EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Cladrastis kentukea (C. lutea)Yellowwood; Yellowwood, American; Yellowwood, KentuckyHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate; Threatened60'55' Yellow4-8
Cornus alternifoliaDogwood, Pagoda; Pagoda-dogwood; Dogwood, Alternate-leavedHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Simple, Alternate30'30' Red, Purple4-7EGM, SLF (especially favored by SLF)
Cornus floridaDogwood, FloweringHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite40'20' Red, Rust5-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by SLF)
Crataegus crus-galliHawthorn, Cockspur; Cockspur-thornHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate25'25' Orange-red3-7EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Crataegus mollisHawthorn, DownyHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate25'30' Orange-red3-6EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Crataegus punctataHawthorn, DottedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'30' Orange-red4-8EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Crataegus viridisHawthorn, GreenHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Threatened25'25' Red-orange5-7EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Diospyros virginianaPersimmon; Persimmon, CommonHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'35' Orange-red4-8EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Fagus grandifoliaBeech, AmericanHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'80' Orange-red4-8EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM, SLF)
Fraxinus americanaAsh, White; Purple AshHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite100'70' Red, Purple3-9EAB, EGM, ALB, SLF (less preferred by EAB, ALB; seldom attacked by EGM;especially favored by SLF)
Fraxinus nigraAsh, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite60'70' Yellow3-9EAB, EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EAB; less preferred by ALB; seldom attacked by EGM)
Fraxinus pennsylvanicaAsh, Green; Ash, RedHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite50'70' Yellow3-9EAB, EGM, ALB, SLF (especially favored by EAB, ALB; seldom attacked by EGM)
Fraxinus profundaAsh, Pumpkin; Pumpkin-ashHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite60'70' Red, Purple5-9EAB, EGM, ALB, SLF (seldom attacked by EGM)
Fraxinus quadrangulataAsh, BlueHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite70'70' Yellow, Pale3-9EAB, EGM, ALB, SLF (less preferred by EAB; seldom attacked by EGM)
Gleditsia aquaticaWaterlocust; Water-locustHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate; Endangered60'39' Yellow6-9
Gleditsia triacanthosHoneylocust; Honey-locustHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate70'40' Yellow, Brown4-9EGM (seldom attacked by EGM)
Gymnocladus dioicusKentucky Coffeetree; Kentucky Coffee-treeHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate100'50' Yellow3-8
Juglans cinereaButternut; Walnut, WhiteHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate60'50' Yellow3-7EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM)
Juglans nigraWalnut, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate80'70' Yellow4-9EGM, SLF (especially favored by EGM, SLF)
Liquidambar styracifluaSweetgum; Gum, Sweet; Gum, RedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate120'50' Orange-red5-9EGM (especially favored by EGM)
Liriodendron tulipiferaTuliptree; Tulip-tree; Poplar, Tulip; Poplar, YellowHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate175'50' Yellow5-9EGM, SLF (seldom attacked by EGM; especially favored by SLF)
Magnolia acuminataMagnolia, Cucumber; Cucumber-tree; CucumbertreeHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Endangered100'35' Yellow, Gold3-8EGM
Magnolia tripetalaMagnolia, Umbrella; Umbrella-treeHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Endangered20'30' Yellow, Brown5-8
Malus coronaria
(Pyrus coronaria)
Crabapple, American; Crabapple, Wild; Crabapple, Wild Sweet; Crabapple, SweetHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'25' Yellow-green4-8
Malus ioensisCrabapple, PrairieHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate25'25' Red-orange4-8
Morus albaMulberry, White; Mulberry, SilkwormINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'50' Yellow4-8
Morus rubraMulberry, RedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate70'35' Yellow5-10
Nyssa sylvaticaGum, Black; Gum, Sour; Tupelo, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'30' Red, Copper3-9
Ostrya virginianaHophornbeam; Hop-hornbeam, American; Hop-hornbeam, Eastern; IronwoodHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate30'30' Yellow3-9
Oxydendrum arboreumSourwoodHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Threatened60'25' Orange-red5-9
Platanus occidentalisSycamore; Sycamore, AmericanHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate100'100' Yellow4-9
Populus balsamiferaPoplar, Balsam; Balsam-poplarHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Presumed Extirpated70'10' Yellow3-9
Populus deltoidesCottonwood; Cottonwood, EasternHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate100'75' Yellow2-9
Populus grandidentataAspen, Bigtooth; Aspen, Big-toothed; Aspen, Large-toothedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'28' Yellow, Gold3-5
Populus heterophyllaCottonwood, SwampHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate70'40' Yellow3-8
Populus tremuloidesAspen, Quaking; Aspen, TremblingHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'30' Yellow2-5
Prunus americanaPlum, American; Plum, American WildHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate25'25' Orange-red3-10
Prunus hortulanaPlum, Hortulan; Plum, Wild GooseHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate15'15' Orange-red5-9
Prunus nigraPlum, Canada; Canada-plumHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate25'15' Red, Purple3-6
Prunus pensylvanicaCherry, Pin; Pin-cherry; Cherry, FireHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate40'30' Orange-red3-8
Prunus serotinaCherry, Wild Black; Cherry, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'25' Yellow3-10
Pyrus calleryanaPear, Callery, incl. cultivar: Pear, BradfordINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'35' Red, Purple4-9
Quercus acutissimaOak, SawtoothINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'60' Yellow, Brown5-9
Quercus albaOak, WhiteHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate150'70' Red3-9
Quercus bicolorOak, Swamp WhiteHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate75'70' Yellow, Brown3-9
Quercus coccineaOak, ScarletHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'50' Red, Deep4-8
Quercus ellipsoidalisOak, Northern Pin; Pin-oak, Northern; Oak, Hill'sHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'70' Red, Rust3-9
Quercus falcataOak, Southern Red; Oak, SpanishHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'50' Red, Copper7-9
Quercus imbricariaOak, Shingle; Shingle-oakHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'70' Orange-red3-9
Quercus lyrataOak, Overcup; Overcup-oakHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'60' Orange-brown6-9
Quercus macrocarpaOak, Bur; Bur-oak; Oak, MossycupHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'70' Red, Copper3-9
Quercus marilandicaOak, Blackjack; Oak, Black-jackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate40'70' Red3-9
Quercus michauxiiOak, Swamp Chestnut; Chestnut-oak, SwampHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'50' Red6-9
Quercus montana (Q. prinus)Oak, Chestnut; Oak, Rock Chestnut; Chestnut-oak, Rock; Oak, Rock; Oak, MountainHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate75'60' Yellow, Brown5-9
Quercus muehlenbergiiOak, Chinkapin; Oak, Chinquapin; Chinkapin-oak; Oak, YellowHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate; Endangered80'70' Orange-brown3-9
Quercus pagodaOak, Cherrybark; Cherrybark-oakHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate120'48' Red, Copper7-9
Quercus palustrisOak, Pin; Pin-oakHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'70' Orange-red3-9
Quercus rubraOak, Red; Oak, Northern RedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'70' Red, Deep3-9
Quercus shumardiiOak, ShumardHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'60' Orange-red5-9
Quercus stellataOak, Post; Post-oakHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'70' Red, Copper3-9
Quercus velutinaOak, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'60' Orange-red3-9
Robinia pseudoacaciaLocust, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate80'35' Yellow4-8
Sassafras albidumSassafrasHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate90'40' Red, Deep5-9
Tilia americanaBasswood, American; Linden, AmericanHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate80'50' Yellow3-8
Ulmus alataElm, WingedHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'40' Yellow6-9
Ulmus americanaElm, AmericanHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate100'120' Yellow2-9
Ulmus pumilaElm, SiberianINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'50' Yellow5-9
Ulmus rubraElm, Slippery; Elm, American SlipperyHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate60'35' Yellow3-9
Ulmus thomasiiElm, Rock; Elm, CorkHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate90'90' Yellow3-7
Salix amigdaloidesWillow, Peachleaf; Willow, Peach-leafHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Simple, Alternate40'17' Yellow2-8
Salix nigraWillow, BlackHardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate40'100' Yellow2-8
Aralia spinosaDevil's Walkingstick; Devil's-walkingstick; Hercules' ClubHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Compound, Alternate20'10' Red-orange4-9
Hamamelis virginianaWitch-hazelHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Simple, Alternate20'25' Yellow3-8
Ptelea trifoliataHoptree; Hoptree, Common; Hop-tree, Common; Wafer-ashHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Simple, Alternate20'15' Yellow3-9
Rhus typhinaSumac, Staghorn; Staghorn-sumacHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Compound, Alternate25'25' Red-orange4-8
Sorbus decoraShowy Mountainash; Showy Mountain-ashHardwood, Deciduous (Shrubby), Compound, Alternate; Presumed Extirpated30'70' Red-orange3-9
Ailanthus altissimaTree of HeavenINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Alternate70'50' Yellow-green5-8
Alnus glutinosaAlder, European Black; Alder, Black; Alder, CommonINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Alternate50'40' Yellow-green3-7
Paulownia tomentosaPrincess Tree; Royal Paulownia; Empress Tree; PrincesstreeINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Simple, Opposite or Whorled40'40' Green5-8
Phellodendron amurenseAmur Cork Tree; Amur CorktreeINVASIVE SPECIES Hardwood, Deciduous, Compound, Opposite45'60' Yellow3-7
*An invasive species is defined as a species that is: 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Invasive species that occur in urban forests should be removed, if and wherever possible, or at least avoid being planted or replanted.

**Links for additional information include fact sheets from various federal and municipal entities and academic institutions. These fact sheets expand upon and feature a broader range of tree details, including identification photos. These factsheet links were specifically selected, based on the quality of their online content. We highly recommend the book "Native Trees of the Midwest" by Sally Weeks (Purdue University). Please contact us regarding any broken web links.

[DISCLAIMER: Tree facts sometimes vary from source to source, and particularly from state to state. We conducted our research from multiple sources from within Indiana and then from states in our general region, with few exceptions. Arbor Rangers, LLC makes no guarantees,  nor claims, as to fitness of the data represented other than that every attempt has been made to present such information as accurately as possible. After consulting the "101 Trees of Indiana" © 2003 publication as a basis for our tree list, we then cross-checked the information with other sources. Where sources differed in information, we gave preference to the data from the newer published book "Native Trees of the Midwest" (Revised and Expanded Second Edition) © 2010 and then, in the case where certain data was not cited in this publication, we used or averaged the data available from the other resources listed at the bottom of this page. This tree list is subject to modification without prior notification.]

Native Trees of Indiana list compiled, created and copyright © 2017 Arbor Rangers, LLC.

Arbor Rangers, LLC would like to thank and acknowledge the following resources which made this compilation possible:

Find additional resources here on our TEACHER and PARENT RESOURCES page.

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